Thyroid Pathology falls into two categories of pathology: Neoplastic and Endocrine. Endocrine disease lead to dysregulated levels of thyroid hormones, termed hypothyroidism (insufficient hormone) or hyperthyroidism (excess hormone). Cancerous disease of the thyroid is rare but can range from adenomas which are harmless to carcinomas which are highly aggressive. The thyroid gland is an important little endocrine organ in the anterior neck. The cytopathology of the thyroid gland is dealt elaborately in the thyroid pathology.